Brahma- the creator of the universe in Hindu mythology

Hinduism is a vast religion and probably the oldest one on earth and since every religion has its own theory of birth or creation of the universe, it is apparent that the oldest religion with oldest mythology would probably have one as well. Though in Hinduism this theory is very vast and interesting and has many perspectives in accordance with many sects of Hinduism; there is one entity which is common among all the sects of Hinduism who is the creator of the universe whom we know as Lord Brahma or the creator.


It was the time when time itself was unborn and nothing-literally nothing-existed moving or static. The whole space was asleep and Lord Narayan was at the centre of it-resting on Anant Sheshnaag when from his naval(naabhi kamal), Lord Brahma was born. When Lord Brahma asked Lord Narayan about the cause of his birth then he was told that it is his duty to create a universe. Lord Brahma obeyed the Lord and obliged and hence the universe came into existence.

There is also a theory of Hiranyagarbha i.e. the golden egg or the golden womb. It is believed that when none existed, the supreme soul or brahman existed and then he created cosmic waters and established a seed in it which turned out to be a golden egg or Hiranyagarbha. The Super Soul entered it and then it broke into two giving birth to the creation of the universe and from the same cosmic golden egg was born Lord Brahma.

Now lets talk about the life of Lord Brahma and what we know about him.

Lord Brahma is actually believed to reside in Brahma lok where he lives with his consort goddess Brahmani or goddess Saraswati. He with his four heads has created four Vedas and his first creation was the four kumaras- Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatan and Sanat who refused to lead the creation as they were completely engrossed in Lord Vishnu/Lord Narayan and were celibates. His life span is that of 100 ‘Brahma-years’ which is much more when compared with our 100 years. His few seconds involves many years for humans on earth.

The life span of Lord Brahma is 100 ‘Brahma-Years’. One day in the life of Brahma is called a Kalpa or 4.32 billion years. Every Kalpa creates 14 Manus(Manu is first male human created by Brahma for birth of humans on earth whose wife Satrupa is first female to give birth to humans on earth. They are like Adam & Eve of Hindu Mythology) one after the other, who in turn manifest and regulate this world’s 4 yugas(yugas=ages)-Satyug(golden age), Tretayug(silver age), Dwaparyug(bronze age), and Kaliyug(iron age in which we are living). At the end of it i.e., at the end of Brahma’s life span, the destruction by Lord Shiva takes place after which Lord Narayan again rests and Brahma gets dissolved in him.

So this is how this cycle takes place again and again and Brahma gets birth for the creation and gets dissolved in Lord Narayan at the end and this is how our universe comes into existence and then gets dissolved all over again with the dissolution of our creator-Lord Brahma.

Surkanda Devi Temple-Shiva, Sati, Daksh and the place where the head of goddess Sati fell

Who among us doesn’t know about lord Shiva and his consort goddess Sati who is the manifestation of Adi Parashakti- the supreme source of energy, the supreme power who has given birth to universe and all the planetary positions and all the demigods along with the three prime gods of Hindu pantheon who form a holy trinity- Brahma Vishnu and Shiva. Goddess sati was the first form of goddess Adi Shakti who took human form to marry lord Shiva. Sati loved Shiva since childhood but his father Daksh Prajapati was a staunch devotee of lord Vishnu but at the same time he barred people from worshipping lord Shiva. Not only this but he abhorred lord Shiva to such an extent that he disliked people who had any inclination towards Shiva. So much was this hatred that he abandoned his daughter sati whom he had loved the most in his life just because she had married Shiva against his wishes.


Daksh Prajapati is considered as one of the sons of Brahma who after creating ten manas putra (born of his mind), created sons Daksh, Dharma, Kamadev, and Agni from his right thumb, chest, heart, and eyebrows respectively. It is believed that Daksh with his wife Prasuti practiced penance for thousands of years to get adi Parashakti as their daughter and happy with their devotion, devi gave them boon that she will be born to them and sati was born as daughter who was devi herself.


With passage of time, Daksh turned arrogant with power and sense of feeling that even demigods and saptarishis come to meet him at his will and many of them are his sons-in-law. But he could not stop Sati from loving and worshipping Shiva despite of the fact that she loved her father a lot and was in extreme agony as to what to do with her life as she couldn’t let her father down and at the same time could not stop herself from loving Shiva as they were inseparable since the beginning of time.


However, there came a time when sati married Shiva and left Daksh’s palace to live with Shiva on Kailash Mountains. Major turning point, however, in the development of sects of Shaivism and Shaktism was Daksh Yagna in which he invited all the gods, demigods, rishis and nobles from heavens and all over the universe but intentionally avoided inviting Shiva and Sati. Sati out of filial affection wanted to attend the grand yagna but Shiva stopped her from doing so because he could see the catastrophe that lay in the womb of time. After much discussion, sati got infuriated. It is believed that it was the first time when ten Mahavidyas of Devi durga emerged from the body of sati. Mahavidyas-the ten fiercest forms of Devi durga-are said to be emerged only because she got angry being stopped by Shiva. Hence Shiva allowed her to go to yagna.


When sati reached her father’s palace which she had left some time ago, she was extremely glad to see all her sisters, her mother her relatives and others. But what she realized there stunned her to the core. Her sisters, relatives and her own mother neglected her and did not show any affection to her. No one spoke to her there and among all the demigods, saints and sages, and in front of whole society she felt extremely humiliated. But she could take it all had it not been the question of the respect and dignity of her husband, lord Shiva because what Daksh Prajapati did next was unacceptable to her. Daksh started insulting lord Shiva by calling him immoral, dirty roaming ascetic who accompanies ghosts and goblins. Sati unable to bear it took the form of adi Parashakti and made Daksh realize his mistake. All the guests present there got extremely petrified and that form of her struck terror into their hearts.

 She reminded Daksh who she was. She also reminded him that she was his daughter because she was happy with his penance but in arrogance of power he had forgotten that her relation with Shiva was divine and they were eternal consorts. She however did not kill Daksh-because in human form, he was her father and she couldn’t kill her father-or anyone present there but she couldn’t face her husband again either because he insisted her not to attend the yagna but she didn’t listen to him. She felt extremely remorseful that she disobeyed her husband who was stopping her for her happiness and allowed also for her happiness. Such was her anger and aggravation mixed with guilt that she immolated herself with the fire of her own body’s yoga Shakti.
Everyone got petrified. They had no idea what would happen now when the mother goddess immolated herself and what would be the reaction of lord Shiva who is known for the accomplishment of the task of destruction among the holy trinity.

Atmosphere of yagna turned into that of rampage when Shiva got to know it. He invoked Veerbhadra and Bhadrakali to destroy Daksh yagna. Veerbhadra beheaded Daksh and Bhadrakali destroyed Daksh yagna which is the reason that one of maa Durga’s 108 names is Dakhshyagnavinashini (one who destroyed the yagna of Daksh).


When Shiva reached the locale and heard all the cries and witnessed the bloodshed, he resurrected all those who were slaughtered and blessed them as he is known to forgive all. He also forgave Daksh and replaced his head with that of a goat. But it didn’t help grief stricken Shiva and he couldn’t get peace in his heart and mind.

After that, Shiva carried the burnt body of sati and rendered Taandav dance which is the dance of destruction which brings demolition of the whole creation. Demigods got agitated and prayed to lord Vishnu for help. Thus lord Vishnu had cut Sati’s body into 52 body parts using his Sudarshan Chakra which fell on Earth to become holy spots to pray to the Goddess named Shakti Peeths.

All these Shakti Peeths also have lord Shiva in his Bhairav form. And this is how Shakti Peeths came into existence.

Now there are places on this earth where parts of sati’s body fell and devotees throng from all around the world to these holy Shakti Peeths to seek blessings of maa shakti. I visited one such temple recently in Dhanaulti near Mussoorie. Maa Surkanda Devi’s temple is believed to be the place where the head of sati fell. Though there are other temples which are believed to be the location where sati’s head fell, Surkanda Devi temple is a very known and revered temple.



As the head of sati fell here it was originally called as Sirkhanda which with the passage of time became Surkanda. Temple has a black idol of maa durga which is beautiful and makes the devotees extremely ecstatic and delighted. It was a great experience for me to behold that look of maa durga with motherly affection and tranquility. The temple premise has a temple of Bhairav and maa Kaali as well like other Shakti Peeths.


Besides, it also has lord Shiva and lord hanuman temples.



It is situated on top of a hill in Dhanaulti from where the picturesque hills and valleys can be seen along with the Himalayan peaks. It’s so serene to be at the top of the hill, to have a look on the beautiful foggy hills that one really loves to get lost in the peaceful ambience of the temple. Open area outside temple gives beautiful scenic view to the devotees. The tiring trek to the temple vanishes with such experience and that is a great feeling one gets on top of the hill in temple.


So this is the story of Devi Surkanda where the head of maa sati fell, and Shiva, Shakti (Sati) and Daksh and how Shakteepeeths came into existence. This is the story of love and pain of separation. This is the story of ignorance of Daksh who later felt remorseful and became a devotee of lord Shiva and spent all his life worshipping lord Shiva; passed his life visiting temples dedicated to lord Shiva.

But this could not end the love of Shiva and Shakti which is beyond time and reach of mortals. Sati once again took birth as Parvati as daughter of Himavan-king of mountains and Devi Maina. This time she married Shiva and they got their love to cherish it forever.

And this was my journey to the Surkanda Devi temple which I had been wishing to visit since last few years being a devotee of maa Shakti. The peace of mind that one gets at the temple of maa Shakti is beyond words. I simply can’t describe the motherly affection I feel I get from maa durga. So all that I can say or describe is that if you really wish to feel that divine affection of maa Surkanda or innocent Maa Sati and that serene atmosphere, you must visit the hill station of Mussoorie-Dhanaulti and must visit this divinely great temple amidst the colossal hills and beautiful valleys.

Pictures courtesy- Except wallpapers, all the pictures were clicked by me and some are originally posted on my Facebook page Shekhar’s

Strange Similarities Between Darwin’s Theory of Evolution & Lord Vishnu’s Dashavatar


Presence of life on earth has always been one of the most fascinating and intriguing topic for all humans since thousands of years. How so many species came into being? Who created them? Did they all come into existence together on this planet the moment life started or did they evolve themselves through variations? All these questions reached their end when Charles Darwin, a naturalist proposed his theory of evolution. He proposed that the natural selection was the reason behind it and proposed that all species of organisms aroused and developed through the natural selection of small, and inherited variations that increase the individual’s ability to compete, survive, and reproduce. Those species which couldn’t accept this variation died off and got vanished. However the reason I’m writing this piece is the striking similarity between some theories of evolution and the concept of Dashavatar.


Hindu religion and mythology is probably the oldest in the world. Not only this but it also tells about the wonderful concept of AVATARS of lord Vishnu-the preserver in the Hindu pantheon-which is very similar to that of Darwin’s and other theories of evolution. Vishnu is the god almighty. He is omnipotent and has been manifesting himself on this earth since the time immemorial to save it from the evil and to get earth rid of all the corruption and anarchy prevailed.




But the interesting and very significant aspect of his AVATARS or manifestations on the earth is that it has unmatched similarity with the Darwinism theory of evolution as well as other theories.


The way Darwin told the world that the species adapted certain variations and developed themselves accordingly and the way Vishnu’s manifestations have taken shape in the stories is quite same. All this is very very mysterious and unknown as to how the evolution known to scientists much later had already been told thousands and may be more than thousands of years before it. Let’s have a look at these points. The evolution of Darwinism tells us that the life originated from a common ancestor. Theories also suggest that life originated from the sea, in the sea. In Hindu mythology, it has been told that the world originated from Aadi Jal (eternal cosmic water).

Lord Vishnu HD Wallpapers 6

Now comes the theory of evolution and Dashavatars of lord Vishnu. Life, according to theory of evolution, started with the invertebrates and then came vertebrates in the ocean in the form of fishes. In Hindu mythology, Vishnu’s first incarnation of the Dashavatar is Matsya avatar and Vishnu appears in the form of a fish to save the life from Mahapralaya (ultimate destruction) on earth.


Next, theory of evolution tells that the life came out of ocean and the beings of ocean started walking the land to some extent or we can say that the amphibians came into existence from the vertebrates or aquatic animals. Amphibians have aquatic gills which means they can survive both on land and in sea. Tortoise is an amphibian and this is second avatar of Vishnu in the Dashavatar. Vishnu appeared as Kurma (tortoise) avatar in the form of a tortoise to have Mandara Mountain put on his back to support the churning of the ocean by the devatas and asuras in order to bring amrit (nectar of life) out from the ocean.


After this, the evolution tells us about these being who became more efficient in walking the earth becoming land animal and losing ability to be inside ocean and adapted very conveniently the climate and conditions of the land but they also were swamp animals means they could live in low oxygen water and boar is one such wild animal which is the next and third avatar of lord Vishnu. Vishnu, to save the earth-who beseeches to him to save her from evil demons-manifested himself as a wild boar who is considered as extremely ferocious and cruel.


This also shows how the wild animals ruled the land in the initial stages of the evolution process.

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Next link in the evolution is the early extinct human ancestors who were like the link between apes and humans or the link between the apes and their early beings. There are many theories claiming that some links in the process of evolution are missing and are very mysterious as to how animals evolved as humans. This link aptly resembles the fourth avatar of Vishnu.


Lord Vishnu this time manifested himself as half human- half lion and came as Narsingh avatar to kill evil demon king Hiranayakashyap and to save his ardent devotee Prahlad. This stage tells how transition took place from animals to humans.

In the process of evolution now humans came and evolved. They appeared not as they appear today. They COULD probably be midgets means dwarf. They were not as same in appearance as we are today  and due to evolution and due to new climatic condition for their new form, might have looked like midgets because they were not like us at least back then. In accordance, next, which is the fifth avatar of Vishnu, is the form of a dwarf called Vaaman avatar and is similar to this new evolved human kind. This time he came to send the benevolent but asura king Bali to the underworld.



In the series of perfect evolution, now came the humans who were somewhat like us but lived in caves and are known  to us as early man. In the Dashavatar theory also, Vishnu’s sixth avatar was that of Parshuram. We know that in this age, in the history of human kind, early men would live in forests and caves and would use weapons of wood and stones and so did lord Parshuram. He lived in mountains doing penance. He is famous for his anger and at the same time, he always carries an axe (made of stone and wood). Early men at this stage used to act without much reason and did not know the reason of life. It  does not completely but to some extent resembles the story of Parshuram who was so  short tempered that he killed and vanished the whole Kshatriya clan from the earth mercilessly. He would do penance to know about consciousness and indeed, was a conscious soul at the same time.


When early men came out of their caves and started living in the society as civilized humans, they made rules and followed them to lay the foundation of a society which is based on righteousness. They gave more importance to relationships, respect, righteousness and justice. All this factors can be seen with perfection in the next and seventh avatar or lord Vishnu. Lord Ram who was the seventh avatar of Vishnu was perfect in respecting relationships and elders. He was perfect in justice. And he was perfect in establishing a society based on the policies of righteousness (Ram Rajya).


This is extremely wonderful to see how society of lord Ram’s time was very much similar to earlier civilized societies of human kind whether it is something related with caste system, related with land disputes or the relationship between the ruler and the ruled subjects.

Rama at Home.jpg

Now here the evolution comes to an end as far as physical appearance is concerned. But mentally, humans evolved even more after this stage and are still evolving. When men established the good society where everyone was satisfied, then major issues started taking place such as land disputes at a major level, not only living with sheer righteousness but also how to take right decisions to achieve righteousness. At this point man started knowing more about intelligence of mind not only in terms of physical reality but also in terms of metaphysical reality. Man started realizing about philosophy and metaphysics, knowing self, identity, time, space, life and death etc. Materialism was indeed an important factor for man of this stage but more important was the philosophical knowledge. I think many of us can guess which avatar I am talking about now. Yes, Vishnu’s next and seventh avatar is that of Lord Shree Krishna who is more perfect than perfection itself, in every sense. He is the master of philosophy, he tells the ultimate knowledge of Gita to the world.


He is completely self conscious and knows what inner life is. He knows about every aspect of life and life after life or death. He knows about karmas, moksha, and how to be one with god (who is Krishna only). Krishna told how to achieve what is your right by being adaptable, hardworking and by taking right decision which suits the condition that you are facing.

Lord Krishna Vishwaroop Virat Swaroop (1)

After this stage man-aware of philosophical terms and knowledge-started practicing it and tried achieving moksha (not all humans but some). What lord Krishna told in the eighth avatar of Vishnu was about to be practiced and shown to the world by his ninth one. This avatar was that of Gautama Buddha. He preached the world what enlightenment and nirvana is. Nirvana, another word for moksha, was achieved by Buddha. He is an enlightened one. Man rose above the materialism and started practicing the philosophy of metaphysics. This stage of mental evolution is equal to Buddha’s enlightenment teachings.


Now comes the final stage in which we are living. We have seen above nine stages of evolution both physical and metaphysical. But what now? What is to be achieved after nirvana or moksha has been realized by humans?

The evolution many times proposes that whatever is created has to be destroyed in order to begin the process of creation all over again. And this very aptly fits into the theory of Dashavatar. The human when achieves everything physical and metaphysical, when he knows what is materialism and what is the meaning of “POWER”, when everything possible is achieved by him, then anarchy obviously prevails because the power hungry leaders wants to rule the earth and they not only just crave for land but also for the absolute power. Then comes the time when this rampant anarchy and tumultuous situation is to be defeated. A rise of new power by the righteous, virtuous and benevolent person takes place. This is what the tenth and final avatar of Vishnu is all about.

When morality and dharma or righteousness will be in hearts of few handful men; when even Brahmans would become charlatan and would stop being learned and full of knowledge and wouldn’t be able to hold dharma; when man will be the biggest enemy of other man; when one will try and get success by killing others literally or otherwise; when the rulers won’t think about ruled and would become extremely selfish and tyrant; and when there will be no justice for the common man and sheer injustice would prevail everywhere and when some handful good humans will be forced to live in the caves and forests out of fear of others; then the Kalki avatar of Vishnu will arrive and will destroy the whole creation except few humans who believe in dharma. This avatar will be completely perfect and would know every aspect of life. He will be self realized person yet will end the creation for the world would be too imperfect and defective by then. He will use extremely powerful sword of his to destroy worlds. Species will be finished by him and the whole process of creation would take place again.


Here the extremely powerful weapons of Kalki may have the similarities with the nuclear and other extremely powerful weapons that the world has today. Also the world is living on the heap of nuclear weapons today and probably the holocaust caused by these weapons would make the world imperfect and pave the way for the final avatar of lord Vishnu. He also will have the equal and even more powerful weapons to destroy the imperfect world for the new creation and for the fresh evolution process.

I don’t know if I am right or wrong but these similarities compelled me to write and express and share what I have written about the striking similarities between the process of evolution and the Dashavatars of lord Vishnu. The way humans have evolved or the way life has evolved on this earth and the way we have lived since the beginning till this modern period is extremely similar with the Dashavatar theory. Every avatar fits in so perfectly with the advancement of humans that I find it extremely mysterious and interesting.

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By-Shekhar Srivastava